This species is the medicinal Ganoderma, used as a tradicional chinese medicine called ‘Reishi’ or ‘Lingzhi’, which is often mistaken as ‘G. lucidum’ in literature and everyday uses. See further information about the matter below.
EN: Reishi, Lingzhi I FR: Ganoderme luisant I DE: Lackporling I NL: Lakzwam I ES: Pipa I HU: Pecsétviaszgomba
According to the literature, G. lucidum is generally considered to be identical with the familiar, traditional Asian medicine, namely “Ling-zhi” in China and “Mannentake” or “Reishi” in Japan (e.g. Paterson 2006, Wasser 2005). Nevertheless, it has long been recognised that the name G. lucidum was erroneously applied to the morphologically somewhat similar East Asian Ganoderma collections (Moncalvo et al. 1995, Pegler and Yao 1996) and the most often incorrectly used binomial within the genus (Seo and Kirk 2000).
However, based on phylogenetic studies, it should be considered that the distribution range of G. lucidum s. str. is limited to Europe and northern and southwestern China (Yang and Feng 2013, Zhou et al. 2015). Several recent molecular studies proved that the specimens originated from Japan, Korea or Eastern China, and previously identified as G. lucidum are identical with the recently described G. lingzhi S. H. Wu, Y. Cao et Y. C. Dai or G. sichuanense J. D. Zhao et X. Q. Zhang sensu Wang et al. (Cao et al. 2012, Kwon et al. 2016, Wang et al. 2012, Yang and Feng 2013, Yao et al. 2013, Zhou et al. 2015).
In a recent study, german scientists were examining two of Mycelia’s Ganoderma ‘lucidum’ strains (M9720 and M9724) for identifying on the species level with molecular techniques and determining the triglyceride composition.
The study found that the 9724 is not G. lucidum but G. lingzhi and it has a significantly higher triglyceride content, hence it is more valuable as a medicinal mushroom (Hennicke et al., 2016).
Cao, Y., Wu, S. H. and Dai, Y. C. (2012): Species clarification of the prize medicinal Ganoderma mushroom “Lingzhi”. – Fungal Diversity 56(1): 49–62. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13225-012-0178-5
Hennicke, F., Cheikh-Ali, Z., Liebisch, T., Maciá-Vicente, J. G., Bode, H. B. and Piepenbring, M. (2016) Distinguishing commercially grown Ganoderma lucidum from Ganoderma lingzhi from Europe and East Asia on the basis of morphology, molecular phylogeny, and triterpenic acid profiles. Phytochemistry 127: 29–37.
Kwon, O.-C., Park, Y.-J., Kim, H.-I., Kong, W.-S., Cho, J.-H. and Lee, C.-S. (2016): Taxonomic position and species identity of the cultivated Yeongji ‘Ganoderma lucidum’ in Korea. – Mycobiology 44(1): 1–6. https://dx.doi.org/10.5941/myco.2016.44.1.1
Moncalvo, J.- M., Wang, H.-F. and Hseu, R.-S. (1995): Gene phylogeny of the Ganoderma lucidum complex based on ribosomal DNA sequences: comparison with traditional taxonomic characters. – Mycol. Res. 99(12): 1489–1499. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0953-7562(09)80798-3
Paterson, R. R. M. (2006): Ganoderma – a therapeutic fungal biofactory. – Phytochemistry 67(18): 1985–2001. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chin.200650268
Pegler, D. N. and Yao, Y. J. (1996): Oriental species of Ganoderma section Ganoderma. – In: Wasser, S. P. (eds): Botany and mycology for the next millennium: collection of scientific articles devoted to the 70th Anniversary of Academician Sytnik KM. Kholodny NG Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, pp. 336–347.
Seo, G. S. and Kirk, P. M. (2000): Ganodermataceae: nomenclature and classi cation. – In: Flood, J., Bridge, P. D. and Holderness, M. (eds): Ganoderma diseases of perennial crops. CABI, Wallingford, pp. 3–22. https://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9780851993881.0003
Wasser, S. P. (2005): Reishi or Ling Zhi (Ganoderma lucidum). – In: Paul, M., Coates, P. M., Blackman, M. R., Cragg, G. M., Levine, M., Moss, J. and White, J. D. (eds): Encyclopaedia of Dietary Supplements. CRC Press, pp. 603–622. https://dx.doi.org/10.1201/b13959-62
Yang, Z. L. and Feng, B. (2013): What is the Chinese “Lingzhi”? – a taxonomic mini-review. – Mycology 4(1): 1–4.
Yao, Y. J., Wang, X. C. and Wang, B. (2013): Epitypification of Ganoderma sichuanense J. D. Zhao & X. Q. Zhang (Ganodermataceae). – Taxon 62(5): 1025–1031. https://dx.doi.org/10.12705/625.10
Zhao, J. D. (1989): The Ganodermataceae in China. – Biblioth. Mycol. 132: 1–176.
Zhou, L. W., Cao, Y., Wu, S. H., Vlasák, J., Li, D. W., Li, M. J. and Dai, Y. C. (2015): Global diversity of the Ganoderma lucidum complex (Ganodermataceae, Polyporales) inferred from morphology and multilocus phylogeny. – Phytochemistry 114: 7–15. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.09.023
Wang, X. C., Xi, R. J., Li, Y., Wang, D. M. and Yao, Y. J. (2012): The species identity of the widely cultivated Ganoderma, ‘G. lucidum’ (Ling-zhi), in China. – Plos One 7(7): e40857. https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040857